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Shamans Priests and Witches

// November 18th, 2009 // No Comments » // Publications

Shaman Priest WitchMichael Winkelman | Arizona State University 1992

This book integrates the findings of a cross-cultural study on types of magico-religious practitioners and shamanistic healers within the context of anthropological and sociological studies. The study provides a general framework for explaining magico-religious and shamanistic phenomena through statistical analysis of data from a formal cross-cultural sample. This provides a typology of magico-religious practitioners with universal applicability, distinguishing the shaman from other types of healers. The analysis reveals an empirical structure related to the institutional bases of these practices–altered states of consciousness (ASC), political control, and social conflict. The correlation between types of practitioners and socioeconomic conditions provides the basis for a general theory of magico-religious phenomena, the origins of shamanism, and its transformation under socioeconomic change. These findings are integrated with other studies on magic and religion to provide a general organizational framework for understanding diverse magico-religious phenomena and traditional healing practices. The biological basis in ASC are shown to provide the origins of shamanism and the therapeutic mechanisms of shamanistic healing.

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Pilgrimage and Healing

// November 17th, 2009 // No Comments » // Publications

PilgrimageJill Dubish and Michael Winkelman eds. | University of Arizona Press 2005

Bikers converge at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. Thousands flock to a Nevada desert to burn a towering effigy. And the hopeless but hopeful ill journey to Lourdes as they have for centuries. Although pilgrimage may seem an antiquated religious ritual, it remains a vibrant activity in the modern world as pilgrims combine traditional motives—such as seeking a cure for physical or spiritual problems—with contemporary searches for identity or interpersonal connection. That pilgrimage continues to exercise such a strong attraction is testimony to the power it continues to hold for those who undertake these sacred journeys. This volume brings together anthropological and interdisciplinary perspectives on these persistent forms of popular religion to expand our understanding of the role of the traditional practice of pilgrimage in what many believe to be an increasingly secular world. Focusing on the healing dimensions of pilgrimage, the authors present case studies grounded in specific cultures and pilgrimage traditions to help readers understand the many therapeutic resources pilgrimage provides for people around the world. The chapters examine a variety of pilgrimage forms, both religious and non-religious, from Nepalese and Huichol shamanism pilgrimage to Catholic journeys to shrines and feast days to Nevada’s Burning Man festival. These diverse cases suggest a range of meanings embodied in the concept of healing itself, from curing physical ailments and redefining the self to redressing social suffering and healing the wounds of the past. Collectively and individually, the chapters raise important questions about the nature of ritual in general, and healing through pilgrimage in particular, and seek to illuminate why so many participants find pilgrimage a compelling way to address the problem of suffering. They also illustrate how pilgrimage exerts its social and political influence at the personal, local, and national levels, as well as providing symbols and processes that link people across social and spiritual boundaries. By examining the persistence of pilgrimage as a significant source of personal engagement with spirituality, Pilgrimage and Healing shows that the power of pilgrimage lies in its broad transformative powers. As our world increasingly adopts a secular and atheistic perspective in many domains of experience, it reminds us that, for many, spiritual quest remains a potent force.

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