The study of consciousness has remained a difficult topic in the sciences 
and humanities. Anthropology’s biocultural approach and 
neurophenomenological approaches, provide great benefits in superseding 
the paradigm bound constraints of science. A significant application of 
anthropological methods in the study of consciousness has involved the 
study of the “sacred plants,” also known as the hallucinogens, 
psychedelics and entheogens. These substances provide special 
perspectives on the nature of consciousness and the spirit world. I have 
coined the term “psychointegrators” as a more appropriate characterization of the experiential and physiological effects of the serotonin-based 
substances on consciousness.

Winkelman’s article, “Psychointegration: The Physiological Effects of Entheogens” addresses neurotheology perspectives on sacred plants.

Scientific Approaches to Psychointegrators

For regular updates on recent research on entheogens, ask Tom Roberts to add you to his listserve. His e-mail address is 

For scientific studies and public policy approaches to entheogens, see 
the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) website 

The Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona holds 
biannual “Toward a Science of Consciousness Conferences” in Tucson, 
Arizona. For more information, please see

The Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness holds annual 
conferences. For more information, please see

DMT: The Spirit Molecule 
For a behind-the-scenes look at the cutting edge of brain science, 
especially the psychopharmacology of serotonin, check out “DMT: The Spirit Molecule: A Doctor’s Revolutionary Research into the Biology of Near-Death and Mystical Experiences” by Rick Strassman, M.D., a clinical psychiatrist.

From 1990 to 1995, Dr. Rick Strassman conducted DEA-approved clinical research at the University of New Mexico in which he injected sixty volunteers with DMT (N, N-dimethyltryptamine), one of the most powerful psychedelics known. His detailed account of those sessions is an 
extraordinarily riveting inquiry into the nature of the human mind and the 
therapeutic potential of psychedelics. DMT, a plant-derived chemical that 
is also manufactured by the human brain, consistently produced 
out-of-body, near-death, and mystical experiences. Many volunteers 
reported convincing encounters with intelligent nonhuman presences, 
angels, aliens, and spirits. Nearly all agreed that the sessions were 
among the most intense experiences of their lives. For more information 
about the book, including an overview, table of contents, chapter 
summaries, a sample chapter, reviews, and order information; please go to 
Strassman’s web page at

Therapeutic Approaches with Psychointegrators

Psychedelic Medicine and Consciousness
The importance of these new perspectives on these substances is illustrated in Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments [2 volumes, edited by Michael J. Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts). The contributors illustrate a wide range of applications of these psychointegrators in diseases such as cluster headaches for which biomedicine has no effect treatments.

The treatment of substance abuse, particularly cocaine and opioid addictions, is among these novel applications of the psychointegrators. These substances have also open exploration of the transpersonal realms of consciousness and provided new understandings of the nature of the transpersonal realms of consciousness and the unconscious structures of the mind.